What should we say when the major thing you could add to the earth was what brought fatal nightmares to the world. Everybody has its own destiny. Every destiny is expected to be flourishing and to add fruit to the mother earth. Over the course of time, great men have been born who has added to improvement of the world by discovering and inventing new features in other to make the mother earth more habitable. If not for these great thinkers, the world would have been a wasteland with wandering confused specie of homo sapien. Man began to grow both in art and in science and in a bid to make the environment more habitable new ways were discovered. But in the course of this man’s quest of making its environment more habitable, he began to alter negatively not only his environment but his own welfare. Many were unfortunate to have it that their own destiny was to invent what began to strip off the calm innocent soul from the sapiens living up the earth. Most of the product of these unfortunate inventors has pierced through the earth with their sharp edges which will continue to happen till heaven calls. But if only these unusual inventors had not been born to experience their own inventions, mass of souls would not have been sent to grave. Therefore we may curse the day they were born, but first let’s look at what we have.
11) Leonardo da Vinci (33-Barrelled Organ)
Around 15 century who could have known that hundreds upon hundreds of people will die only because a weird genius was born. A Genius that would spend part of his time inventing cannons, armoured cars and barrelled guns that will send many men to their early grave in the name of war. Though he was an artist, a scientist and foremost an inventor, he was Leonardo da Vinci. What if vinci was not there, what if vinci was not brought to earth, things would have been otherwise in a way; many men would not have died in many battles of his time.
As a military engineer, one of Leonardo da Vinci’s key beliefs was that mobility was crucial to victory on the battlefield. This idea is seen in many of his war inventions, from his mobile bridges and ladders to many of his weapon designs.
Despite vinci ‘s triple barrel canon and his armoured car he invented around 15 century which of cause has killed and ravished thousands of soul in the battle field, he went further to produce the basis of the creation of the Morden day ever human soul consuming war machine gun; his 33-barrel organ.
The way Leonardo da Vinci saw it, the problem with the canons of the time was that they took far too long to load. His solution to that problem was to build multi-barreled guns that could be loaded and fired simultaneously.
This idea of a barrel that can load and fire simultaneously; forms the basis of war inventions like da Vinci’s 33-barreled organ, which featured 33 small-caliber guns connected together. The canons were divided into three rows of 11 guns each, all connected to a single revolving platform. Attached to the sides of the platform were large wheels.
All the guns on the organ would be loaded and then, during battle, the first row of 11 would be fired. The platform would then be rotated to properly aim the next row of canons. The idea was that while one set of canons was being fired, another set would be cooling and the third set could be loaded. This system allowed soldiers to repeatedly fire without interruption as well as ravishing souls in the battle field.
The weapon is referred to as an “organ” because the rows of canon barrels resemble the pipes of an organ. Leonardo da Vinci’s design for the 33-barrelled organ is generally regarded as the basis for the modern day machine gun – a weapon that didn’t really develop for commercial use until the 19th century.
It is also of note that, while gunpowder was in its infancy during the 15th century, Leonardo used it frequently in his designs, predicting its eventual emergence as the weapon of choice in 19th- and 20th-century warfare.
If Leonardo da Vinci had not invented his 33-barrelled Organ, gun technologist would not have something of a design to look into that gave them the idea of creating the so called Machine Gun which has ran through the carcasses of its victims not only in world war 1 and world war 11 but till present. Many have died in the hands of not only vinci’s war equipments but also the outcome of his creation, the modern machine Gun, and yet many are yet to die. If vinci was not born, we may not say that we cursed the day he was born?
10) Avtomat Kalashnikov (Ak-47)
Around 19 century another Genius was born, whose deeds are still rampaging around the world as I was writing this. His deed was named after him by himself to remind us how deadly his minds were to the spirit of the dead who has passed by his swords, even though he wouldn’t admit his action. It is AK; it was Avtomat Kalashnikov, it is AK-47. Almighty has fallen, nations has fallen, relatives has been wipe out and many are yet to go as the world don’t even care on how they manufacture AK-47 because of this man born to the earth.
Mikhail Kalashnikov began his career as a weapon designer in 1941, while recuperating from a shoulder wound, which he received during the Battle of Bryansk. Kalashnikov himself stated…”I was in the hospital, and a soldier in the bed beside me asked: ‘Why do our soldiers have only one rifle for two or three of our men, when the Germans have automatics?’ So I designed one. I was a soldier, and I created a machine gun for a soldier. It was called an Avtomat Kalashnikova, the automatic weapon of Kalashnikov—AK—and it carried the date of its first manufacture, 1947
The AK-47 (also known as the Kalashnikov, AK, or in Russian slang, Kalash) is a selective-fire (semi-automatic and automatic), gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known in the Soviet documentation as Avtomat Kalashnikova (Russian: Автомат Калашникова).
Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year of World War II (1945). In 1946, the AK-47 was presented for official military trials, and in 1948, the fixed-stock version was introduced into active service with selected units of the Soviet Army
Sixty years after the AK-47 went into production, Mikhail Kalashnikov says he does not stay awake at night worrying about the bloodshed wrought by the world’s most popular assault rifle.
“I sleep well. It’s the politicians who are to blame for failing to come to an agreement and resorting to violence,” Kalashnikov said on a certain Friday at a ceremony marking the birth of the rifle, whose initials stand for “Avtomat Kalashnikov.”
Since production began, more than 100 million AK-47s have been made — either at the home factory in the central Russian city of Izhevsk, under license in dozens of other countries, or illegally. Sergei Chemezov, director of the Russian arms export monopoly Rosoboronexport, said nearly a million a year are produced without license.
The AK-47 has been a mainstay in wars, coups, terrorist attacks, robberies and other mayhem. Its popularity comes from being rugged and easy to maintain, though its accuracy is not high.
It proved ideal and extremely reliable for warfare in jungle or desert — easily assembled and able to keep firing in sandy or wet conditions that would jam a U.S-made M-16.
“During the Vietnam war, American soldiers would throw away their M-16s to grab AK-47s and bullets for it from dead Vietnamese soldiers,” he said. “I hear American soldiers in Iraq use it quite often.”
The simplicity and reliability of the AK-47 made it a favorite of rebel movements worldwide — it even features on the Mozambique flag. Keen to support anti-colonial movements in Asia and Africa, the Soviets proliferated the rifle, sometimes for free, to pro-Soviet regimes or insurgents.
Even after almost seven decades, the model and its variants remain the most popular and widely used assault rifles in the world because of their substantial reliability under harsh conditions, low production costs compared to contemporary Western weapons, availability in virtually every geographic region and ease of use. The AK-47 has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces worldwide, and was the basis for developing many other types of individual and crew-served firearms.
Just how much damage does the weapon cause?
Each year, some 250,000 people die from wounds inflicted by an AK-47.
What conflict brought the AK-47 to the attention of the West?
The AK-47 was first seen by Westerners in 1956, when Soviet troops used them to suppress the revolution in Hungary — resulting in the deaths of hundreds of civilians.
Has it been used in civilian-initiated mass shootings?
The gun is not limited to armies and militant groups. On December 5, 2007, a 19-year-old wielding an AK-47 opened fire in an Omaha, Nebraska shopping mall in the United States, killing eight people and wounding three more — before turning the gun on himself.
Source: Weaponomics: The Global Market for Assault Rifles” (PDF).
9) Charles Romley Alder Wright (Heroin)
Drugs equal death. If you do nothing to get out, you end up dying. To be a drug addict is to be imprisoned. In the beginning, you think drugs are your friend (they may seem to help you escape the things or feelings that bother you). But soon, you will find you get up in the morning thinking only about drugs.
“Your whole day is spent finding or taking drugs. You get high all afternoon. At night, you put yourself to sleep with heroin. And you live only for that. You are in a prison. You beat your head against a wall, nonstop, but you don’t get anywhere. In the end, your prison becomes your tomb.” —Sabrina
In the mid to late 1800’s, opium was a fairly popular drug. Opium dens were scattered throughout what we know today as the wild west. The opium influx during this period was due in large part to the drug being brought into the USA via Chinese immigrants who came there to work on the railroads.
It was from opium that morphine, a derivative, was developed as a pain killer in approximately 1810. It was considered a wonder drug because it eliminated severe pain associated with medical operations or traumatic injuries. It left the user in a completely numb euphoric dream-state.
In just over 10 years time from its arrival into this country, the United States was plagued with a major morphine epidemic. Even though no actual statistics were kept on addiction at this time, the problem had grown to large enough proportions to raise serious concerns from the medical profession. Doctors became perplexed and were completely in the dark as to how to treat this new epidemic.
By 1874 the answer to this increasing problem was thought to be found in the invention of a new drug in Germany.
Charles Romley Alder Wright FCS, FRS was an English chemistry and physics researcher at St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School in London. He was the first person to synthesize diamorphine or heroin
This new wonder drug was called Heroin, after its German trademarked name. Heroin was imported into the United States shortly after it was invented. The sales pitch that created an instant market to American doctors and their morphine addicted patients was that Heroin was a “safe, non-addictive” substitute for morphine.
Hence, the heroin addict was born and has been present in American culture ever since.
Heroin, morphine and other opiate derivatives were unregulated and sold legally in the United States until 1920 when Congress recognized the danger of these drugs and enacted the Dangerous Drug Act. This new law made over-the-counter purchase of these drugs illegal and deemed that their distribution be federally regulated. By the time this law was passed, however, it was already too late.
• An estimated 13.5 million people in the world take opioids (opium-like substances), including 9.2 million who use heroin.
• In 2007, 93% of the world’s opium supply came from Afghanistan. (Opium is the raw material for heroin supply.) Its total export value was about $4 billion, of which almost three quarters went to traffickers. About a quarter went to Afghan opium farmers.
• The 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported 153,000 current heroin users in the US in 2007. Other estimates give figures as high as 900,000.
• Opiates, mainly heroin, were involved in four of every five drug-related deaths in Europe, according to a 2008 report from the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction.
• Opiates, mainly heroin, account for 18% of the admissions for drug and alcohol treatment in the US.
“From the day I started using, I never stopped. Within one week I had gone from snorting heroin to shooting it. Within one month I was addicted and going through all my money. I sold everything of value that I owned and eventually everything that my mother owned. Within one year, I had lost everything.
“I sold my car, lost my job, was kicked out of my mother’s house, was $25,000 in credit card debt, and living on the streets of Camden, New Jersey. I lied, I stole, I cheated.
“I was raped, beaten, mugged, robbed, arrested, homeless, sick and desperate. I knew that nobody could have a lifestyle like that very long and I knew that death was imminent. If anything, death was better than a life as a junkie.” —Alison
Up till today Charles Romley’ addictive drug is still on loose….who knows the next victim.
8) Professor Fritz Haber (Mustard Gas)
One hundred years ago a great conflict began that would change the world forever. World War I, also known as the Great War, would leave 17 million people dead or missing in action. Stuck in the squalid conditions of the trenches, it was a living hell for those on the front line.
But it was made even worse by the work of an industrial chemist, who was born not knowing that he will add fuel to the existing one in the battle line of the great World War 1. He was Fritz Haber.
In July 1917, troops based in Ypres, Belgium, reported a shimmering cloud around their feet and a strange peppery smell in the air. Within 24 hours they started to itch uncontrollably and developed horrific blisters and sores. Some started coughing up blood.
They’d been poisoned by mustard gas – one of the most deadly chemical weapons deployed in battle.
And because mustard gas can be absorbed through the skin, gas masks were useless. Even fully clothed soldiers weren’t fully protected. It could take up to six weeks to die from mustard gas, and it was a terrible way to die.
Towards the end of the Great War, this gas had not only killed and crippled but instilled terror across the battlefield. The first use in Ypres alone left up to 10,000 people dead, with many more injured.
Mustard gas was one of a number of weaponised poison gases developed by Fritz Haber, a Professor at the prestigious University of Karlsruhe. Haber was a brilliant chemist, who invented a process for the industrial scale production of ammonia-based fertiliser. This brilliant discovery, known as the Haber process, played a huge role in avoiding worldwide famines and now feeds about a third of the world’s population. It won him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918.
The Germans used mustard gas for the first time during war in 1917. They outfitted artillery shells and grenades with mustard gas that they fired in the vicinity of the troop target. After encountering several attacks, the Allies referred to mustard gas as Hot Stuff or H.S., eventually dropping the S and just referring to it as H. By the end of the war, more than two dozen chemical agents had injured 1 million soldiers and civilians, killed 100,000 people and earned the well-deserved title of weapons of mass destruction.
Between January 12 and January 16, 1936, the Italians defeated the southernmost Ethiopian army in the Battle of Genale Wenz. After a February lull, the Italians began a major thrust towards the city of Harar.
In addition to conventional weaponry, Badoglio’s troops also made substantial use of mustard gas, in both artillery and aerial bombardments. In total, the Italians deployed between 300 and 500 tons of mustard gas during the war, despite having signed the 1925 Geneva Protocol. The deployment of gas was not restricted to the battlefield, however, as civilians were also targeted by the Italians, as part of their attempt to terrorize the local population. Furthermore, the Italians carried out gas attacks on Red Cross camps and ambulances.
The armed forces disposed of a vast arsenal of grenades and bombs loaded with mustard gas which were dropped from airplanes. This substance was also sprayed directly from above like an “insecticide” onto enemy combatants and villages.
On August 1983, the Iraqis used mustard gas against a small group of Iranians and Kurdish and causing around 100 casualties. From October-November in Panjwin Iraq, at least 3,000 Iranians and Kurds were gassed. On February 1984, Iraqis released mustard gas against invading Iranian forces on Majnoon Island. Around 11 more Iranian pushes were met with use of mustard gas and nerve gas which caused around 25,100 people.
When you first encounter mustard gas, you may not even know anything is about to affect you. The best way to detect mustard gas is through smell. Like your experience in the opening section of this article, soldiers exposed to mustard gas had a hard time detecting a gas attack but noticed a funny smell. Even under heavy doses, however, their noses adapted to the smell quickly, giving them the impression that the gas had dissipated. Have you ever noticed you can’t smell something, be it good or bad, after you’ve been sniffing it for a few minutes? The same principle applies during a mustard gas attack.
So one of the most dangerous aspects of mustard gas doubles as one of its most desirable attributes as a weapon. We know mustard gas is difficult to detect unless you’re under a direct attack. It’s even harder to notice in contaminated areas where the gas has settled. That posed a problem for soldiers walking through an exposed area that underwent an attack say two days earlier. The chemical agent would stay in the ground for weeks, depending on the temperature. The colder the ground, the longer the mustard gas would linger.
But Haber’s role in chemical weapons’ development means his legacy will always have its dark side.
7) Marie curie (Polonium for Atomic Bomb)
Marie Sklodowska, as she was called before marriage, was born in Warsaw in 1867. Both her parents were teachers who believed deeply in the importance of education. Marie had her first lessons in physics and chemistry from her father. She had a brilliant aptitude for study and a great thirst for knowledge; however, advanced study was not possible for women in Poland. Marie dreamed of being able to study at the Sorbonne in Paris, but this was beyond the means of her family. To solve the problem, Marie and her elder sister, Bronya, came to an arrangement: Marie should go to work as a governess and help her sister with the money she managed to save so that Bronya could study medicine at the Sorbonne. When Bronya had taken her degree she, in her turn, would contribute to the cost of Marie’s studies.
So it was not until she was 24 that Marie came to Paris to study mathematics and physics. Bronya was now married to a doctor of Polish origin, and it was at Bronya’s urgent invitation to come and live with them that Marie took the step of leaving for Paris. By then she had been away from her studies for six years, nor had she had any training in understanding rapidly spoken French. But her keen interest in studying and her joy at being at the Sorbonne with all its opportunities helped her surmount all difficulties. After two years, when she took her degree in physics in 1893, she headed the list of candidates and, in the following year, she came second in a degree in mathematics. After three years she had brilliantly passed examinations in physics and mathematics. Her goal was to take a teacher’s diploma and then to return to Poland.
Becquerel, while studying X-rays, had accidentally discovered that uranium salts gave off what Marie called “rays of a peculiar character.” She chose to make the investigation of these rays the topic of her thesis.
She used piezoelectric-based equipment designed by Pierre her husband to measure the tiny amounts of energy that were being released by uranium and, as she soon found, also by thorium. Marie started to study uranium and thorium ores and was surprised to find that pitchblende was much more active than it should be from its uranium content. There had to be another radioactive element in pitchblende, one that had not yet been recognized.
At this point, Pierre gave up his own work and joined Marie in the hunt for the new element. After much chemical analysis, they ended up with something that was about 300 times more active than uranium and called it ‘polonium’ in honor of Marie’s native land. A few months later they discovered another new radioactive element that they called ‘radium.’
Apparently the Uranium 235(U235) gun type nuclear bomb used by America against Japan used a Polonium initiator as a Neutron source to enhance the explosion.
After the war a great deal of basic detail was released about the design of such bombs and separation techniques for U235 extraction but of course Polonium was used in making of the Bomb
Essentially polonium is about 400 times more radioactive than the well-known uranium. Polonium for bombs is used because it acts as a neutron source – and in standard models of such quantum behaviour, neutrons become as a perfect particle for chain reactions – devastating chain reactions.
The Fat Man device which was one of the Bombs released in Japan was 60 inches in diameter, 128 inches long, and weighed 10,300 lbs. It used about 6 kilograms of plutonium in the form of a three piece sphere (Two hemispheres and a sort of wedge shaped equitorial piece) with a spherical cavity about half an inch in diameter in the center for a Polonium – Beryllium initiator. Surrounding the plutonium was a two part sphere of natural uranium tamper.
Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day.
If Marie curie wasn’t there, if Polonium wasn’t there and if the combination of polonium with Uranium and other factors was not there, may be little or no souls would have been lost in japan in 1945 and there might be more people left to tell the story of world war 11.
6) Martin Heinrich Klaproth (Uranium for Bomb)
In ancient times uranium oxide was used to produce yellow colored ceramic glazes. Uranium was formally discovered in 1789, in Berlin, Germany by Martin Heinrich Klaproth. Klaproth was studying the mineral pitchblende, which was then believed to be a zinc/iron ore.
Klaproth dissolved pitchblende in nitric acid, then added potash to obtain a yellow precipitate. Adding excess potash dissolved the yellow precipitate. Such reactions were not characteristic of any known element and Klaproth concluded he had discovered a new element.
He named it after the recently discovered planet Uranus. But little did Klaproth know that his discovery is going to turn against the world during the world war. Little did he know that Uranium will form the basis of the atomic bomb production in the world war 11.
Because of his discovery in March 1942 the US Government orders 60 tons of Canadian uranium from Eldorado; as a result, Eldorado decides to re-open the mine at Great Bear Lake — in secrecy — with special permission from the Canadian government. Again, miners are sent into poorly ventilated areas where they receive high radon exposures.
Again, ore concentrates are carried in cloth bags, without benefit of protective clothing or showers, by nomadic people — the Sahtu-Dene — who have lived, fished, and hunted for thousands of years on the shores of Great Bear Lake.
In June 1942 : In secrecy, Canadian Minister of War C. D. Howe decides to nationalize Eldorado, making the mining-and-refining company the exclusive property of the Canadian government.
In July 1942 :The US Army orders another 350 tons of uranium from Eldorado.
In September 1942 :The U.S. Army acquires 1200 tons of rich uranium concentrates from the Congo — this material had been secretly stored, since 1939, in a warehouse on Staten Island, in New York Harbour, by its Belgian owners.
In December 1942 :The U.S. Army orders another 500 tons of uranium from Eldorado, before deliveries on the earlier, 350-ton contract have been completed.
However, when asked to refine the Staten Island concentrates on a priority basis, Eldorado interrupts its delivery of Canadian uranium to the US and begins to process the Congolese uranium instead.
At this point over 220 tons of uranium from Great Bear Lake have already been delivered. From this point on, uranium from the Congo, refined at Port Hope, will dominate the Manhattan Project.
In 1943 to 1945 :Uranium from Canada, Colorado, and the Congo is used in the World War II Atom Bomb Project.
Because of his discovery millions has died and there spirit roaming on the dark surfaces’ of the earth. Had it been he wasn’t born, things would have been otherwise.
5) Edward Uhl (Bazooka)
In 1942, early in World War II, an Army first lieutenant with an engineering degree named Edward Uhl helped develop the shoulder-fired rocket launcher. The Bazooka went from the drawing board into combat within 30 days, setting a record for effective procurement. The 2.36 inch M1 rocket launcher was introduced in June 1942, and the improved M1A1 in August 1943. It was named the “Bazooka” after a custom-made musical instrument used by then-popular radio comedian Bob Burns. The M9 bazooka, introduced in June 1943, was a major redesign and improvement of the original weapon. It was replaced in turn by the M9A1 in September 1944.
In the Korean War, the 3.5 inch M20 rocket launcher was used. This weapon had been developed at the end of WW II but then ignored. It was rushed into production and flown to Korea when it was found the 2.36 inch bazooka was ineffective against the Soviet T-35 tanks. The U.S. Army explosives experts at Picatinny Arsenal developed a highly effective 3.5-inch bazooka High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) round.
Since the Korean War, bazookas have been replaced by recoilless rifles and antitank missiles. In Vietnam the U.S. Army used the M20 in limited numbers, while phasing in the M72 LAW, a five pound disposable weapon accurate to 350 yards (meters).But unfortunately Bazooka is one of the major weapons used in modern day terrorism which they use in massacring the innocent people of the earth. Almost every terrorist groups around the world use tons of bazooka weapons which they easily used to reach out the victim communities they lay their hands
4) Robert Oppenheimer and The Manhattan Project Scientists (Atomic Bomb)
(Other Scientist in the team: David Bohm, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, Otto Frisch, Rudolf Peierls, Felix Bloch, Niels Bohr, Emilio Segre, James Franck, Enrico Fermi, Klaus Fuchs and Edward Teller.)
The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada.
From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs.
The first nuclear device ever detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test, conducted at New Mexico’s Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on 16 July 1945. Little Boy, a gun-type weapon, and Fat Man, an implosion-type weapon, were used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. In the immediate postwar years.
One of the most cited and least-interpreted quotations from the history of the atomic age is what J. Robert Oppenheimer claimed to have thought when he witnessed the world’s first nuclear explosion: “I am become death, the destroyer of worlds.”
Shortly after Oppenheimer, director of the laboratory that developed the atomic bomb, saw the fireball glowing over the New Mexico desert at the Trinity test site on 16 July 1945, those words derived from the Hindu scripture the Bhagavad-Gita came to his mind. The quotation appears throughout the literature on nuclear weapons, often in a slightly different form: “I am become Death, the shatterer of worlds.”3 Destroyer or shatterer, the fatal image has appeared in such widely read recent books as Roger Shattuck’s Forbidden Knowl and in truth Oppenheimer and his team were the destroyer of the worlds.
3) John Davy MD FRS (Deadly phosgene Chemical)
In year 1812, 22-year old British amateur chemist John Davy syntetized the phosgene gas for the first time. However, it didn’t contain any phosphorus, its name was derived from greek words phos(light) and gennesis(birth). John Davy probably assumed that his invention would be used in a more sensible way, however, on 9th of December, 88 tons of phosgene were released during the trench warfare in France, killing 69 men and seriously injuring more then 1,200.
Germans were satisfied by the results, so they soon started using grenades filled by phosgene in combat. It accounts for more than 60% of all deaths caused by the chemical warfare during the First World War, more than chlorine and mustard gas combined.
During the Second World War, most soldiers were well-prepared for the possible use of this deadly gas, so the casualties were nowhere that high. However, phosgene-filled grenades used during the 1942 Battle of Kerch by Nazi Germany allegedly injured at least 10,000 Soviet soldiers.
Which deadly properties does this gas possess? At low temperatures, it is a colourless liquid. However, when heated to more than 8 degrees celsius, it evaporates quickly. Its odour has been often described by the survivors as pleasant, similar to newly mown hay or wet grass. After release, it contaminates the area for about 10 minutes, double the time in the winter. When compared to chlorine, phosgene has a major advantage; first symptoms start to manifest themselves after much longer time period, usually after more than five minutes, allowing more phosgene to be inhaled.
After one inhales high concentrations of this lethal gas, his chances of survival are very mild. After few minutes, he is likely to die of suffocation, because phosgene aggresively disrupts the blood-air barrier in the lungs.
After inhaling less concentrated phosgene, you might be little bit better off. One hour after exposure, first symptoms include strong burning sensation in pharynx and trachea, severe headache and vomiting, followed by pulmonary edema(swelling and fluid buildup), which often leads to suffocation.
To this day, phosgene remains one of the most dangerous chemical weapons in the world. Although not as deadly as sarin or nerve gas, it is very easy to manufacture; no wonder it’s often used during terrorist attacks. Homemade phosgene grenade can be easily created by exposing a bottle of chloroform to UV-light source for a few days.
2) Samuel Colt and his counterpart inventor; Joseph Laumann (Revolver and semi automatic respectively)
It all started in China, where gunpowder was first created. In the ninth century, alchemists blended charcoal, saltpeter and sulfur into a powder called huo yao, which was used to treat skin infections. Armies quickly learned the powder could be used in bombs, mines and other weapons. Gunpowder was transported to Europe in the 13th century, likely over the Silk Road trade routes through central Asia. Rival nations refined gunpowder recipes in the ensuing centuries before arriving at the optimum mixture: approximately 75 percent saltpeter, 15 percent charcoal and 10 percent sulfur.
Historians typically recognize Chinese fire lances, which were invented in the 10th century, as the first guns. These bamboo or metal tubes projected flames and shrapnel at their targets. Cannons appeared in Italy around 1320, where they were modified as European nations waged many wars. By the 16th century, European firearms had become far more advanced — and far more deadly — than their counterparts in the East.
Though cannons boomed on the battlefield, the conservative military resisted the change that guns and other new technology represented. They had practical reasons to shun guns, too: Gunpowder was expensive, the operator was as likely to injure himself as his target and the weapons were so inaccurate that aiming them was pointless.
In 1836, an American, Samuel Colt patented the first revolver mechanism that led to the widespread use of the revolver. According to Samuel Colt, he came up with the idea for the revolver while at sea, inspired by the capstan, which had a ratchet and pawl mechanism on it, a version, of which was used in his guns to rotate the cylinder. Revolvers proliferated largely due to Colt’s ability as a salesman. But his influence spread in other ways as well; the build quality of his company’s guns became famous
In 1892, The Schönberger-Laumann was the first semi-automatic pistol. It was invented by the Austrian inventor Joseph Laumann .
A semi-automatic pistol is a type of pistol that is semiautomatic, that is it uses the energy of the fired cartridge to cycle the action of the firearm and advance the next available cartridge into position for firing. One round is fired each time the trigger of a semi-automatic pistol is pulled.
Additional terms sometimes used as synonyms for a semi-automatic pistol are automatic pistol, self-loading pistol, autopistol, and autoloading pistol.
A semi-automatic pistol harnesses the energy of one shot to reload the chamber for the next. After a round is fired, the spent casing is ejected and a new round from the magazine is loaded into the chamber, allowing another shot to be fired as soon as the trigger is pulled again.
Unsecured guns have turned dozens of toddlers into killers — and many more into victims.
Kids younger than three have gotten ahold of guns and shot someone at least 59 times this year, a disturbing trend first reported by Christopher Ingraham at the Washington Post in October. Most often, these toddlers injure or kill themselves, but more than a dozen have shot other people, sometimes fatally. Gun violence prevention advocates say that gun storage requirements and the adoption of smart guns that only fire for their owners could reduce these deaths, but the gun lobby vehemently opposes such mandates. In November, after the Post’s report, 20 Democrats in the U.S. Senate asked the Government Accountability Office to issue a report on the safe storage of guns in American homes.
In 2011, there were 12,664 homicides. In 8,583 of those cases, firearms were the cause, and 6,220 of those firearms were handguns. This is not quite the 10,728 figure that was quoted by Mr Fogle.
The US Bureau of Justice also provides data on homicide trends. From 1976 to 2005, it charts the use of handguns in homicides. In 1980, the use of handguns in homicides was over 10,500, which fell steadily during the decade. In 1993 it hit a peak of 13,981 and has been on a general downward trend since then.
In 2010/11 in England and Wales,there were 60 victims of homicide by shooting, which was an increase of 19 from 2009/10. Handguns were used in over 3,000 offences during 2010/11, a fall of 17 per cent on 2009/10.
According to the Home Office, there has been a downward trend since 2001/02. The Home Office also provides information on the number of firearm certificates issued in England and Wales. In March 2012, there were 141,820 firearm certificates on issue, covering 477,888 firearms.
1) Gerhard Schrader (Sarin Gas)
In 1936, a German scientist named Gerhard Schrader at Bayer (yes, that Bayer which made aspirin) and later the IG Farben factory (which also produced Zyklon B, the chemical agent used to gas millions of Jews and other “undesirables” to death during the Holocaust), was working on an insecticide designed to disrupt the insect’s nervous system.
Schrader experimented with a class of chemical compounds called organophosphates to kill leaf lice or wooly aphids. He and his assistant had synthesized a compound called tabun when, accidentally, they were exposed to a drop of the colorless liquid which fell onto the lab bench. They became very dizzy and had severe difficulty seeing and breathing. It took them three weeks to recover fully.
Schrader has just discovered the first class of nerve agent known to man. Tabun or GA is the first in the G-series of nerve agents discovered by the “father of nerve gas.”
Immediately, the Nazi government instructed Schrader to change the focus of his research from killing insects to humans. New factories dedicated to the production of tabun were built, and the Nazi stockpiled over 12,000 tons of tabun
The helpers of Scharder were Ambros, Rudiger and van der Linde, during their research of pesticides. During the WWII, this deadly gas was first used by the Nazi Germany in June 1942. At the end of the war, Germany allegedly possessed more than 10 tons of sarin.
However, it is most famous for being used during the 1995 terrorist attack on the Tokio subway by a Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo, killing 13 people and allegedly injuring more than 5,000. It was also used back in August 2013 by al-Assad’s forces in Ghouta, Syria, killing more than 1,700 people.
Sarin belongs to the group of nerve gasses, the deadliest of all toxic gasses used in chemical warfare. It is highly toxic; a single drop of sarin the size of the head of a pin is enough to kill an adult human. In addition, most of the victims usually die few minutes after contamination.
It usually enters the organism via respiration, but it can also penetrate the skin or be ingested. In home temperature, sarin is a colourless liquid without significant odor, similar to water. However, when exposed to higher temperatures, it starts to evaporate, being still odorless. After release, it often remains deadly for more than 24 hours.
Immediately after exposure, first symptoms include strong headaches, increased salivation and lacrimation(secretion of tears), followed by gradual paralysis of the muscles. Death is caused by asphyxiation or heart failure.
According to some sources, Sarin is 500 times more deadly than cyanide, with its lethal dose being only about 800 micrograms. Only 5 tons of sarin, obviously properly dosed, would be enough to wipe out entire humanity.
In 2013 the world has witnessed the heinous and lethal effects of sarin gas being deployed in Syria, where an estimated 1,500 people died from its effects in just one attack on the outskirts of Damascus. Would they have died like that if Schrader was not born?
Upon all these the massive destruction of their invention still lingers….so one has to wait and see what the feature holds…
Written By Aneke Francis Chinedu
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